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Restoration Certificates Beneath Debt Restoration Act Is Not Restricted To Winding Up Proceedings Solely However Extends To IBC: Clarifies Supreme Court docket

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Lately, the Hon’ble Supreme Court docket within the case of Kotak Mahinda Financial institution Restricted vs A. Balakrishnan & one other (Civil Enchantment No.689 of 2021) has held that any legal responsibility arising out of a restoration certificates must be handled as monetary debt inside vis-ŕ-vis clause (8) of Part 5 of the Insolvency and Chapter Code, 20161 and the holder of restoration certificates can be a monetary creditor inside the that means of clause (7) of Part 5 of IBC. As such, the holder of such a certificates can be entitled to provoke the Company Insolvency Decision Course of if initiated inside a interval of three years from the date of issuance of the Restoration Certificates.


Quick Information:

  1. Ind Financial institution Housing Restricted2 sanction numerous credit score amenities to a few borrower entities specifically, M/s. Inexperienced Gardens Non-public Restricted, M/s. Gemini Arts Non-public Restricted, M/s. Mahalakshmi Properties & Investments Non-public Restricted3 through the interval of 1993-1994.
  2. M/s. Prasad Properties and Investments Non-public Restricted4 stood as guarantor/mortgagor by mortgaging its immovable property to safe the credit score amenities sanctioned to Borrower Entities.
  3. The Borrower Items defaulted on the compensation of dues, in response to which IBHL declared them to be Non-performing Property (NPA) in 1997. IBHL filed three restoration fits earlier than the Excessive Court docket of Madras in opposition to the Borrower Items and the Company Debtor. Whereas the fits have been pending, IBHL entered right into a Deed of Project with Kotak Mahindra Financial institution Restricted5 in 2006, assigning all its title, rights, pursuits, claims and calls for to KMBL.
  4. KMBL and Borrower Items subsequently entered right into a compromise settlement within the yr 2006. Nonetheless, Borrower Items allegedly did not make funds as per the compromise settlement. Owing to the mentioned default, KBML issued a requirement discover adopted by a possession discover underneath Part 13(2) and Part 13(4) of the SARFAESI Act, 2002. Subsequently, KBML issued a winding up discover underneath Part 433 and 434 of the Corporations Act, 1956. KBML additionally filed purposes underneath Part 31(A) of the RDDBFI Act, 1993 and the identical was allowed by a Money owed Restoration Tribunal6 within the yr 2016. Pursuant to which DRT additionally issued separate restoration certificates in opposition to every of the Borrower Items and Company Debtor.
  5. KBML primarily based on the aforesaid restoration certificates filed an utility underneath Part 7 of IBC to provoke Company Insolvency Decision Course of7. The Nationwide Firm Legislation Tribunal8 admitted the appliance vide order dated 20.09.2019 which was reversed by Nationwide Firm Legislation Appellate Tribunal9 (NCLAT) on the grounds of limitation vide order dated 24.11.2020. An attraction was filed earlier than the Hon’ble Supreme Court docket.

Points for consideration:

  1. Whether or not an individual, who holds a Restoration Certificates can be a monetary creditor inside the that means of clause (7) of Part 5 of the IBC?
  2. Whether or not the petition underneath Part 7 of the IBC was barred by limitation?


  1. A competition was raised earlier than Hon’ble Supreme Court docket that explanation for motion has merged into the order of issuance of the restoration certificates by the DRT and due to this fact, by utility of the doctrine of merger, the debt no extra survives and initiation of initiation of CIRP by KMBL would quantity to submitting of second proceedings for the exact same explanation for motion and thus can be hit by the doctrine of res judicata and notably, per rem judicatam.
  2. The Hon’ble Supreme Court docket upheld the contentions of the precedent within the Dena Financial institution (Now Financial institution of Baroda) vs C. Shivakumar Reddy and one other the place it was held that when a declare fructifies right into a remaining judgment and order/decree, upon adjudication, and a certificates of restoration can be issued authorizing the creditor to appreciate its decretal dues, a contemporary proper permits the creditor to recuperate the quantity specified within the Restoration Certificates. Nonetheless, it has determined to investigate the circumstances and determination of the case as as to whether it’s per incuriam.
  3. The Hon’ble Supreme Court docket whereas analysing the doctrine of per incuriam defined that the time period per incuriam applies solely when a judgement is in contravention of any present statute, rule or regulation, or when a judgement/order has been given with out paying heed to present precedents on the matter and rejected the competition that the Dena Financial institution judgement is per incuriam.
  4. The Hon’ble Supreme Court docket whereas evaluating clause (8) of Part 5 and different provisions of the IBC noticed that the phrases “means a debt together with curiosity, if any, which is disbursed in opposition to the consideration for the time worth of cash” are adopted by the phrases “and consists of“. Thereafter numerous classes (a) to (i) have been talked about. That by using the phrases “and consists of”, the legislature has solely given situations, which may very well be included within the time period “monetary debt”. Nonetheless, the checklist will not be exhaustive however inclusive. The legislative intent couldn’t have been to exclude a legal responsibility in respect of a “declare” arising out of a restoration certificates from the definition of the time period “monetary debt”, when such a legal responsibility in respect of a “declare” simpliciter can be included within the definition of the time period “monetary debt”. Accordingly, Hon’ble Supreme Court docket concluded that liabilities arising out of restoration certificates can be monetary debt and the holder of such a certificates is entitled to provoke CIRP underneath the IBC inside three (3) years from the date on which the restoration certificates was issued.
  5. One other competition was put forth earlier than Hon’ble Supreme Court docket that the restoration certificates is for the restricted goal of initiation of winding up proceedings when it comes to sub-sections (22) and (22A) of Part 19 of the Restoration of Money owed and Chapter Act, 199310. The Hon’ble Supreme Court docket whereas rejecting the competition held that the plain and easy interpretation of the phrases utilized in sub­part (22A) of Part 19 of the Debt Restoration Act makes it amply clear that the Legislature supplied that for the needs of winding­up proceedings in opposition to a Firm, and so on., a restoration certificates issued by the Presiding Officer underneath sub­part (22) of Part 19 of the Debt Restoration Act shall be deemed to be a decree or order of the courtroom and there’s nothing is sub­part (22A) of Part 19 of the Debt Restoration Act to suggest that the Legislature supposed to limit the usage of the restoration certificates restricted for the aim of winding­up proceedings.
  6. Lastly, the Hon’ble Supreme Court docket held that the appliance underneath Part 7 of the IBC was filed inside a interval of three years from the date on which the restoration certificates was issued and NCLAT had erred in holding that it’s barred by limitation.


The judgement is a boon for collectors who can provoke declare as monetary collectors underneath IBC primarily based on restoration certificates issued underneath Debt Restoration Act even when the interval of limitation from the date of authentic default has expired as long as they’ve initiated restoration proceedings in time and pursue it to get the adjudication of their declare together with issuance of restoration certificates by the DRT.


1. For brief, ‘IBC’

2. For brief, ‘IBHL’

3. For brief, ‘Borrower Entities’

4. For brief, ‘Company Debtor’

5. For brief, ‘KMBL’

6. For brief, ‘DRT’

7. For brief, ‘CIRP’

8. For brief, ‘NCLT’

9. For brief, ‘NCLAT’

10. For brief ‘Debt Restoration Act’

The content material of this text is meant to offer a basic information to the subject material. Specialist recommendation needs to be sought about your particular circumstances.

Mr Ravi Charan PentapatiHyperlink Authorized
111, Free Press Home,
Free Press Journal Highway,
215, Nariman Level,
400 021
Tel: +91 22 66336791 / 6625 2222

© Mondaq Ltd, 2022 – Tel. +44 (0)20 8544 8300 –, supply Enterprise Briefing



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